The Ginsberg Laboratory has provided essential data in human and relevant mouse models that compare and contrast cells that degenerate (e.g., CBF neurons, CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and glutamatergic neocortical pyramidal neurons) versus cells that are relatively spared within these specific paradigms (e.g., dentate gyrus granule cells). Dr. Ginsberg is one of the relatively few neuroscientists that conduct expression profiling research at the single cell level consistently. Dr. Ginsberg developed his own RNA amplification technology termed terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification which is employed in conjunction with microarray and qPCR based investigations of gene expression at the single cell level. The Ginsberg laboratory has just developed a new technology for the amplification of microRNAs termed miRNA signature sequence amplification (SSAM) for biomarker discovery science. miRNAs are a short 17-25 nucleotide class of non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that have been shown to have critical functions in a wide variety of biological processes. One major obstacle when profiling miRNAs is their low expression level. miRNAs are estimated to constitute only 0.01% of total RNA. As a result, large quantities of starting materials were required for miRNA profiling until the advent of the developing SSAM technology.